# OPT100 - Introduction to Optics

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Subject Title
Introduction to Optics

Subject Description

This subject introduces students to the nature and behavior of light in various media.
Emphasis is placed on the major theories of light as they apply to plane and curved
transparent surfaces and performing advanced optical calculations to determine image
formation through prisms and lenses.

Credit Status
One credit subject toward the Opticianry Diploma Program.

Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this subject the student will be able to:

Upon successful completion of this subject the student will be able to:

1. Define the electromagnetic radiations and calculate light wavelength, speed and frequency.
1.1 Outline visible light dualistic nature and its positions within the electromagnetic
spectrum.
1.2 Identify electromagnetic spectrum radiations by their energy, frequency, wavelength
and velocity.
1.3 Distinguish between different types of radiant energy and identify the sources for each.
1.4 Define light sources and wave fronts.
1.5 Calculate light wavelength, velocity and frequency in vacuum and different media.

2. Define visible light and explain its properties and behavior in different media.
2.1 Define light absorption, reflection, refraction and transmission.
2.2 Define light interference, dispersion, diffraction and polarization.
2.3 Discuss light rectilinear propagation.
2.4 State the sign convention rules as they apply to Geometric Optics.

3. Demonstrate light refracting properties at plane surfaces and through prisms.
3.1 State the characteristics of refractive materials.
3.2 Define refraction and Snell’s Law.
3.3 Use Snell’s Law to demonstrate light refraction at plane surfaces.
3.4 Use Snell’s law to demonstrate light refraction through prisms.
3.5 Demonstrate the relationship between the internal angles and apical angle in a prism.
3.6 Use formulae to calculate the incident angle, the refracting angles and the index of
refraction of a material.
3.7 Use formulae to calculate prism power, deviation and displacement.
3.8 Use ray tracing to determine a ray of light path through plane surfaces and prisms.

4. Demonstrate light refracting properties through single spherical curved surfaces.
4.1 Explain image formation by convex and concave surfaces.
4.2 Determine the incident and emergent vergence.
4.3 Determine object and image location, size, type and orientation.
4.4 Calculate surface power and radius of curvature.
4.5 Use ray tracing techniques to determine the image - object relationship.

5. Demonstrate light refracting properties through thin lenses in air.
5.1 Define thin lenses optical axis, surface and nominal power, center of curvature, focal
points and focal lengths.
5.2 Determine the radius-power relationship of thin lenses.
5.3 Use formulae to derive dioptric power of thin lenses.
5.4 Define spherical lenses and determine object-image relationship of thin lenses.
5.5 Calculate the radii of curvature and the focal point for concave and convex surfaces.
5.6 Use the ray tracing techniques to determine the image - object relationship.
5.7 Define astigmatic lenses, principal meridians and distinguish between different forms
of astigmatic lenses.
5.8 Transpose sphero-cylindrical lenses in (+) and (-) cylinder forms.
5.9 Determine astigmatic lens powers in various meridians and when combined.
5.10 Label the surface powers of astigmatic lenses on the optical cross.

6. Demonstrate light behavior through thick lenses and lens systems in air.
6.1 Determine the significance of optical centers, nodal and cardinal points.
6.2 Define front and back focal lengths, neutralizing power and back vertex power
of a thick lens or of a lens system.
6.3 Determine the effect of thickness on power and principal planes.
6.4 Calculate back vertex power, front vertex power and total power of thick lenses.

7. Apply the reflective properties of light at plane and curved surfaces.
7.1 State the characteristics of reflective and non-reflective materials.
7.2 Define specular and diffuse reflection.
7.3 Explain the phenomenon of reflection at plane surfaces.
7.4 Explain the phenomenon of reflection at curved surfaces.
7.5 Calculate the angle of reflection using the law of reflection and the amount of reflected
light using Fresnel’s law of reflection.
7.6 Calculate reflected light image position, size, orientation, magnification using the
vergence formulas.
7.7 Use ray tracing to determine the image - object relationship at plane and curved
reflecting surfaces.

Essential Employability Skills

•  Communicate clearly, concisely and correctly in the written, spoken and visual form that fulfils the purpose and meets the needs of the audience.

•  Execute mathematical operations accurately.

•  Apply a systematic approach to solve problems.

•  Use a variety of thinking skills to anticipate and solve problems.

•  Show respect for diverse opinions, values, belief systems, and contributions of others.

•  Interact with others in groups or teams in ways that contribute to effective working relationships and the achievement of goals.

•  Manage the use of time and other resources to complete projects.

•  Take responsibility for one's own actions, decisions, and consequences.